Praxis Course Readings

What Is Truth?

  1. The Eternal Quest: What is Truth?

  2. Truth and Knowledge: In Real Life

  3. Plato and Aristotle: Truth

  4. Correspondence Theory

  5. Everyone Wants to Influence You

  6. Fake News and Post Truth


Arbiters of Truth

  1. Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (A Poem of Disillusionment)

  2. Mr. Rogers Tells The Truth (A Quick How To)

  3. Who Never Tells A Lie?

  4. Gatekeeping Theory: Brief Overview

  5. Twitter: An Arbiter of Truth?

  6. Facebook: An Arbiter of Truth?

  7. Young Americans Are Less Trusting

  8. Trust and Distrust in America


Truth in the Law

  1. Social Media Engagement Illegal?

  2. California Law Makes it Illegal to Use an Undisclosed Bot to Communicate With a Person

  3. Deep Fakes Accountability Act

  4. Legislation Against Deep Fakes 


Fake News

Utah Investigative Journalism Project

  1. Defining Fake News

  2. How Are Brains Make Us Believe Fake News

  3. The Science of Fake News

  4. Comments on The Science of Fake News

  5. Data Related to The Science of Fake News

  6. Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election

  7. Methods for Finding Fake News

  8. Comprova

Important Related Resources To Review

-Library Guide on Fake News at Penn State, at Michigan, at London South Bank


Combating Fake News

  1. Introducing The First Draft Coalition

  2. Five Lessons for Reporting in an Age of Disinformation

  3. Sustainable Journalism in an Age of Disinformation

  4. Duke University’s “Duke Tech and Check Cooperative,” aka “Trust & News Initiative”  

  5. The Trust Project

  6. Fact Check (.org)

  7. The Fandango Project

  8. Newsgathering and Verification (First Draft)

Disinformation Campaigns

Dr. Shannon McGregor

  1. Operation Infektion: Russian Disinformation from Cold War to Kanye

  2. How AI Could Change Catfishing

  3. How Fireye Helped Facebook Spot a Disinformation Campaign

  4. Secret Experiment in Alabama Senate Race Imitated Russian Tactics

  5. Six Types of Misinformation to Beware of on Election Day

  6. How Barr and Trump Use a Russian Disinformation Tactic

  7. Rosanna E. Guadagno and Karen Guttieri, Fake News and Information Warfare


Disinformation Solutions

The Trusting News Project

  1. The Report of the Special Counsel, Robert Mueller, on The Investigation Into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election

  2. FirstDraft Resources


Social Media

  1. Americans’ complicated feelings about social media in an era of privacy concerns

  2. A Reckoning for Social Media

  3. The Follower Factory 

  4. Towards Detecting Compromised Accounts on Social Networks

  5. Plans to Make Social Media Website Operators Identify ‘Bot’ Accounts

  6. NY & Fla. AG's Find Fake Social Media Engagement Illegal 

  7. What Is Gamergate?


Deep Fakes

  1. The Obama Deep Fake

  2. Deep Fakes Are Where the Truth Goes to Die

  3. Artificial Intelligence poses a threat to truth via deep fakes

  4. How Deep Fakes Work and How to Detect Them 

  5. The Military and Deep Fakes

  6. Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for Privacy, Democracy, and National Security

  7. Testimony of Danielle Citron before the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, June 13, 2019.

Virtual Beings

  1. Max Hedroom 101

  2. These Influencers Aren’t Flesh and Blood, Yet Millions Follow Them

  3. The Rise of Psuedo-AI

  4. The Grover AI and Deep Bot Fakes

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Instagram